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Armed Resistance
It was in an environment where all protest was stifled that armed resistance started. The ANC and the PAC set up secret training camps for their respective armed wings (uMkhonto weSizwe or MK and Poqo) in the Cape Town region.

Other organisations turned to armed revolt. The African Resistance Movement (ARM), comprising white students, blew up some electricity pylons, but by 1963 this armed action had petered out due to mass arrests.

Hadji Abdullah Haron, Imam of Claremont mosque, played an active role in social action and politics. He encouraged younger Cape Town Muslims to take a more active stance against apartheid. They contributed food supplies to townships during 1960 crisis and supported the Coloured People's Congress (SACPO's successor) in their objection to South Africa becoming a Republic in 1961.


When the CPC was dissolved in 1965, Haron and other members joined the PAC, and became involved in a plan to train young men as guerrillas outside South Africa. The security police kept close tabs on him, leading to his arrest in 1969. He died while the interrogation process was underway. The official report was that he died of injuries sustained after falling down some stone stairs.


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