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Arts in the Apartheid Era
Under Apartheid street parades were severely restricted, the Carnival banned from Green Point stadium in 1968 and both carnivals and demonstrations of any kind made impossible by the Gatherings and Demonstrations Act of 1973.

Writers of the period including Alex La Guma, Richard Rive and Albie Sachs expressed political opinion in their novels and diaries. Much of it drew on personal experiences in jail, of District Six living, and of the impact of forced removals.

Before forced removals, jazz musicians from different racial groups were able to mix and decide who they wanted to play with. White musicians, such as the pianist Chris McGregor, worked with black players, including saxophonist 'Cup and Saucer' Nkanuka.

During the 1950s and '60s two traditions of jazz developed from the popular dance-bands of Cape Town. One was influenced by American musical styles; others practised what was to become known as 'Cape Jazz'. The latter maintained that local jazz should be based in working class dance music, whether it was 'African' marabi and kwela, or it was 'coloured' vastrap and klopse.

One of the leading lights of Cape Jazz was Dollar Brand (later known as Abdullah Ibrahim) who, with his Jazz Epistles, started to experiment with old tunes when their Langa audience conveyed some disinterest at American-inspired pieces.

His music became influenced by Pan-African politics. Tremolo ornamentation (apparently based on the sounds of the Fish Horn) emerged more often. One of Cape Jazz's best known pieces was 'Manenberg', a tune named after the Cape Flats suburb formed by the Group Areas Act where crime was pervasive.

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